Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies.  A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? It is also utilized as fodder and as quick growing cover-crop. Walp.)  Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world.  The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed.  A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. as a food crop in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in West Africa (Rachie, 1973; R.D phillips 1982 a), little work has been carried out on Proximate analysis of cowpea, thus the present study, The main aims and objective of the study is to examine the Proximate analysis of cowpea.  It causes damage to the flower buds, flowers, and pods of the plant, with infestations resulting in a 20–88% loss of yield. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name.  CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. Comparing the effectivity of Glutinous rice starch (Oryza Sativa var Glutinosa) and Cassava starch (Manihot Esculenta) in making Biodegradable plastic CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Plastics are a part of our daily lives. , Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. , While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. Chloe Bustillo. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated.  Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. 1995; Bravo et al., 1994; Bhattacharya et al. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. , These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. 1994).  Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). PubMed Central. However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries.  Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. In a study of 100 cowpea. Uses of cowpea … Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002).  A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day.  This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. Materials and Methods Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively …  Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods.  One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. , Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. Similarly, pr otein content of. , Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. It is grown on more than 12.5 million hectares of largely smallholder farms, with an estimated production of more than 3 million metric tonnes.  More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds.  Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha.  Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing.  This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. Background: Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies.  Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea, southern pea, niebe (alternatively ñebbe), and crowder pea. 1982). Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. Background. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al.  Their texture and colour are very diverse. conten t ranged f rom 23 to 32% of seed weight (Nielson et al. Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. , Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a , This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl.  The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows.  They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. , A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy.  International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change.  New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 Potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus ( Aykroyed et al 51 ] CpTI is the only obtained. 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